Sudan Crisis | Logistics Access Guidance – SITREP 2
Humanitarian Aid to Sudan APRIL 2023
The civil war between warring factions of the Sudanese Military forces has created a humanitarian conflict & refugee situation both inside Sudan (Port Sudan area) and in neighbouring countries Chad, Ethiopia and Egypt.
Sudanese CAA posted a NOTAM A0070/23 wef 30-April prohibiting all flights over territory of Sudan except for evacuation or humanitarian flights approved by PPR and Sudanese authorities. The existing government is not controlling either Khartoum or Nyala airports anymore, however does still control the Port Sudan Airport & area which is seeing less fighting. Evacuation flights with UNHAS continue ex Port Sudan (PZU) airport as well as foreign military flights. Some humanitarian cargo has arrived this way already and PZU will likely become the main airhead entry to the country. PZU Airport is however small (runway 2500m) and does not have facilities to handle larger aircraft such as a main-deck loader to offload wide-body freighters. They do have 2T-16T forklifts as advised. Any air charter operations into Sudan must be approved at diplomatic level and with heavy scrutiny of cargo details and to whom aid is intended. War risk insurance premiums will also be very high and home state CAA approvals may also be required. It is foreseen that some domestic Sudanese carriers may soon be able to operate evacuation flights out of PZU airport to friendly nations.
Airfreight / air charter into Ethiopia (Addis), Chad (N’djamena), South Sudan (Juba and onwards by domestic air) may also provide alternative airheads into the country for onwards delivery by surface transport. There are also discussions about Djibouti, Jeddah becoming staging points with onwards access to Red Sea Ports by ocean freight.
The main seaport at Port Sudan remains operational with infrastructure mostly intact however the customs software network is presently not operational linked to customs HQ in Khartoum. Customs staff shortages are reported however some imports/exports are still occurring & Customs considered open. Major shipping lines are not physically docking at Port Sudan, they berth at Jeddah and use common feeder providers into Port Sudan. Terminal efficiency, even before the crisis, was below international standards so a lot of major lines berth first via Jeddah anyway. Some vessel operators have stopped accepting bookings to Port Sudan and may honor existing bookings only as far as Jeddah Port. Additional war risk insurance surcharges on bookings may also apply. A ferry service operates between Jeddah and Sukain Port 55km south of Port Sudan (cargo capacity TBC).
Internal: Highway access between Port Sudan and Khartoum is risky with no cargo traffic for the time being. The highway is semi locked due to the war. Road access in Western Darfur region is also very dangerous and there are reports of fighting, looting and violence in the region and close to border.
International: (Chad/Sudan) Border crossing between Chad and Sudan is considered non-feasible currently due to security, Chad has closed its border on the Sudan side but is open from Chad into Sudan. Two customs stations in Darfur region reported to have been looted & destroyed. (Ethiopia/Sudan) Border crossing/customs at Galabat is open, although there are no reports of significant humanitarian cargo movement across borders yet & the corridor is not seen as operational yet. (Egypt/Sudan) Border crossing/customs at Argeen land crossing is reported open however road access is far from affected areas in Sudan and road access also poor/unsecure within Sudan.
Chad Access for Assistance with Refugee flows
PWS maintains an office and own staff in Chad. Heavy refugee flows into Chad from Sudan are creating an extraordinary humanitarian situation in a nation already beset with difficulties. There is a severe shortage of diesel fuel and fuel including Jet A1 aviation fuel in Chad and trucking operations have been severely disrupted during this week. Aid operations into Chad (cargo flown into N’djamena) are possible with exemptions linked to NGO consignees & programs in the country.
For Chad to Sudan transit the situation is more complex. Cargo might want to be flown into NDJ and transited via Chad to Sudan or even ocean freight via Port of Douala, Cameroon, passing NDJ and then onwards via the N’djamena-Abeche-Adra(border routing) to enter into Sudan at El Geneinah border; this is however a large distance over difficult terrain. Border Chad to Sudan is considered open but security situation is dire. There are Chad customs offices along the NDJ to Sudan corridor at Abeche and Adre and Goz. Convoys may require to be escorted & inspected by customs at regular intervals. Transit approvals and exemptions to truck via Chad to Sudan will need to be obtained officially & based on exemption. This is a process that the local NGO entity in Chad would need to endorse, applications made via the Ministry of Co-Operation & Security.
Access via South Sudan
Rainy season in SS will make transport from Southern routes up from Juba difficult to border areas and these areas are already contested, such as Abiyei province which has a UNSIFA peacekeeping force already in existence. Permission from an entity known as the Relief & Rehabilitation Commission may be required also. MORE INFORMATION ON EGYPT, ETHIOPIA & KSA TO FOLLOW.